Once more, this is only a partial and simplistic repartition, since political Islam is itself split between moderate and radicals. The most extreme wing of the latter also include terrorist organizations, whose theological foundations and agendas are again very variable: they include local groups like Hezbollah or Hamas as well as international networks such as Al-Qaeda or the more recent and self-declared Islamic State.
Such divides intersect one with the other, and are the key to understanding the region's politics, international relations and security dynamics. As a matter of fact, these multy-layered divides are at the base of the conflicts permanently affecting the region; and grasping them is essential for properly dealing with them.
One of the major issue in the Middle East is the longstanding Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The Jewish state is the only democracy in the whole area (even though one may also count Turkey, whose democratic status has however sensibly worsened in recent years), it has a thriving economy and a powerful military (as well as being the only country in the Middle East to possess nuclear weapons), and is a close ally of the United States; however, it is affected by a precarious security situation, as it lives under the constant threat of terrorist attacks. Moreover, most of the international community condemns its policies in the occupied territories and supports the creation of a Palestinian state as a solution to the conflict.
Another problem is the role of Iran, and its military nuclear program. As a proud and ancient culture, a populous country, the main Shia power and an opponent of the US and its allies (especially Saudi Arabia), Iran is one of the main actors in the area. Still, its actions meet a strong opposition, and the country has to face domestic challenges and to maintain the stability of its regime. And while in July 2015 a deal was reached to solve the nuclear issue, it remains to be seen what its effects will be and if it will actually be respected.
Its major rival is Saudi Arabia, the guide of the Sunnis and ally of the US. While being extremely rich thanks to its immense oil reserves, the Kingdom has started a transition phase to become less dependent on oil export revenues, and it also has to face its own internal stability challenges. Moreover, it is criticized for its violations of human rights and for being a sponsor of jihadi terrorism.