The Northern Sea Route through the Arctic will alter global trade flows and in doing so create new geopolitical chokepoints. Chief among them is the Bering Strait, where US, Russian, and Chinese interests converge.
In the mounting tension between Great Powers, the Black Sea holds a particular strategic importance. It represents the waterway connecting Europe, Russia and the Middle East and is believed to host substantial reserves of hydrocarbons. It’s unique location makes it an important gateway for gas pipelines fuelling European markets and is a key theatre in the confrontation between Russia and NATO.